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Henry Williams
Henry Williams


Bacterial pathogens frequently use protein secretion to mediate interactions with their hosts. Here we found that a virulence locus (HSI-I) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a protein secretion apparatus. The apparatus assembled in discrete subcellular locations and exported Hcp1, a hexameric protein that forms rings with a 40 angstrom internal diameter. Regulatory patterns of HSI-I suggested that the apparatus functions during chronic infections. We detected Hcp1 in pulmonary secretions of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and Hcp1-specific antibodies in their sera. Thus, HSI-I likely contributes to the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in CF patients. HSI-I-related loci are widely distributed among bacterial pathogens and may play a general role in mediating host interactions.


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The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is one of the best models to study the induction, assembly, maturation and maintenance of a postsynaptic apparatus. The three most widely appreciated experimental advantages of the NMJ are its size, its simplicity and its accessibility.

The embryonic NMJs are very different from the adult NMJs. The junction changes from a simple oval plaque to a pretzel-like set of branches, and the junctional membrane changes from a flat sheet to an invaginated surface with gutters and folds. Moreover, the composition of the basal lamina and the cytoskeletal apparatus change as the NMJ matures. Finally, a shift in AChR subunit composition leads to a change in their Ca2+ permeability, and ion- and ligand-gated channels segregate into discrete alternating domains. The mechanisms that underlie each of these transformations have only begun to be uncovered.

The postsynaptic apparatus of the skeletal neuromuscular junction, like that of other synapses, contains a high-density patch of neurotransmitter receptors that is closely associated with a variety of extracellular, transmembrane and cytoplasmic proteins that have adhesive, structural and signalling roles. The postsynaptic apparatus is organized by signals from the presynaptic nerve terminal. It changes in shape, size and molecular architecture as it matures. Once mature, it can be maintained for the life of the organism, but has the capacity for remodelling in response to altered input. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern each of these stages are now being elucidated by a combination of microscopic and genetic methods, allowing the neuromuscular junction to serve as a model for smaller and less-accessible central synapses.

The 708-DS dissolution apparatus is a modular system designed for manual or automated dissolution testing. The instrument can be configured for use with baskets (Apparatus 1), paddles (Apparatus 2), paddle over disk assemblies (Apparatus 5), and rotating cylinders (Apparatus 6), and can accommodate vessel sizes from 100 mL to 2 L.The rugged, yet versatile, 708-DS minimizes external variable influences and is designed for reproducibility and ease of qualification. The instrument is designed to meet or exceed the pharmacopoeial requirements of regulatory bodies around the world.

Whether in R&D or QC, the Agilent 708-DS dissolution apparatus can adapt to meet the testing requirements for USP apparatus 1, 2, 5, and 6. Oral dosage forms, topical products, implants, transdermal patches, or medical devices can all be tested with the range of accessories available for the 708-DS dissolution apparatus. Small volume vessels, Apex (Peak) vessels, and new innovative inert DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coated paddles are just a few available options for your dissolution needs.

The Agilent 708-DS dissolution apparatus can automate your full dissolution test, from sample introduction to sampling and analysis. Automated sampling is easy at the required time points and from the correct sampling position according to the pharmacopeias with the 850-DS sampling station and sampling manifold. Add in the Agilent Cary 60 UV-Vis spectrophotometer to seamlessly analyze the dissolution samples in real time. Compliance and data integrity are ensured with the Agilent dissolution workstation software or UV dissolution software.

Nanoparticle, lipid, or enabled drug formulations can provide new dissolution challenges. The Agilent NanoDis system can be incorporated into the Agilent 708-DS dissolution apparatus to overcome issues with filtering to provide accurate in vitro dissolution results. See how the system is operated and optimized in this video.

The Golgi apparatus structure is composed of flattened membrane-enclosed sacs called cisternae, and associated vesicles. Here we describe a variety of cell-permeant probes that can be used to distinguish the Golgi morphology in both live and fixed cells. Additionally, these probes have applications in lipid metabolism, trafficking studies, or can be used for measuring rates of lipid synthesis.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or Golgi, is found in most eukaryotic cells. The Golgi is a flattened membrane-enclosed organelle that consists of multiple compartments and whose function is a continuation from the ER. Macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates released from the ER are transported to the cis-Golgi compartment of the Golgi complex [1,2]. These macromolecules continue to be transported and processing through the Golgi stack (which contains medial and trans sub-compartments), then travel to the trans-Golgi compartment where they are packaged into vesicles for either secretion from the cell or for use by other organelles within the cell [1,2].

Figure 4. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells labeled for Golgi, lysosomes, and the nucleus. Viable Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells sequentially stained with BODIPY FL-ceramide, LysoTracker Red DND-99 and Hoechst 33258. Green fluorescent BODIPY FL-ceramide localized to the Golgi apparatus, red-fluorescent LysoTracker Red stain accumulated in the lysosomes, and the blue-fluorescent Hoechst 33258 dye stained the nuclei. The multiple-exposure image was acquired with bandpass filters appropriate for fluorescein, Texas Red dye, and DAPI.

This standard defines the requirements for new automotive fire apparatus, including apparatus equipped with a slip-on fire-fighting module, designed primarily to support wildland fire suppression operations.

Across the nation, new Toyne fire apparatus are joining fire departments to help an elite rank of heroes serve their communities and protect their residents. Check out our recent fire truck deliveries to discover the newest custom fire apparatus that are built to take the call.

Toyne is not in the business of merely building custom fire apparatus. We are committed to the mission of serving those who serve neighborhoods across the nation, and to being a partner they can rely on when they have to perform at the highest level.

We always want to keep you in the know. Download product brochures and take a closer look at Toyne and our custom fire apparatus, view photos of customer fire trucks in action, and learn how our trucks are built to take the call.

Toyne custom fire trucks and emergency vehicles combine top-tier materials and technology with expert craftsmanship and a commitment to meeting each of our clients' exact needs. As one of the leading U.S. fire apparatus manufacturers, we are the answer to the industry's need for a product of superior quality. Have no doubt, Toyne fire apparatus are built to take the call.

3845 Electromedical and Electrotherapeutic ApparatusEstablishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electromedical and electrotherapeutic apparatus. Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing electrotherapeutic lamp units for ultraviolet and infrared radiation are classified in Industry 3641.

Founded in 1997, the Professional Electrical Apparatus Reconditioning League (PEARL) is a national trade organization for companies that supply quality surplus and reconditioned/remanufactured electrical equipment and apparatus.

Cambridge has eight fire stations strategically located throughout the city housing eight engines, four ladder trucks, two squads and one rescue as well as numerous specialty vehicles, apparatus and equipment.

With over 60 years of experience, our wide aerial and apparatus product line ranges from products targeting the rural and metro markets as well as the large city and urban fire departments. With one of the widest product offerings, we have what you need when looking for a premium aerial apparatus.

For over 40 years, E-ONE has been an industry leader in the engineering, manufacturing and delivery of fire trucks worldwide. And every E-ONE fire apparatus is built from the ground up for performance you can count on. Here are some of our latest new deliveries. 041b061a72


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